Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate: 002 (Slaves & Slavery in Muslim Africa)
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Fisher And Humphrey J. Fisher, London: C. Hurst; Atlantic Highlands, N.
Sections in this entry
Africa - West ; Ojo, Olatunji VI, No. London and New Jersey: Zed Books. University of Washington Press. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Africa - West ; Ruf, Urs Peter Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. Tchamba vodun arts" in African arts, spring, pp. Africa - West ; Memory ; Saheed, Aderinto London: Frank Cass.
Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Africa - West ; History ; Teyeb, Moctar London: Kegan Paul International. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Antropologia delle forme di dipendenza personale in Africa". Milano: Raffaele Cortina Editore. LXXV, No. Oxon, Ney York: Routledge. Abdelkader, Galy Kadir Africa - West ; History ;. Adofo, Eugenia; Agyeman-Duah, Ivor Africa - West ; Human Trafficking ;.
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Afeadie, Philip Atsu Africa - West ; General ;. Agiri, Babatunde Akurang-Parry, Kwabena O. Abolition ; Africa - West ; Forced Labour ;. Africa - West ; Unfree Labour ;. Africa - West ; Forced Labour ;. Anstey, Roger Anti-Slavery International, Africa - West ; Memory ;. Argenti, Nicolas Abolition ; Africa - West ; Memory ;. Africa - West ; General ; Memory ;. Austin, Gareth Abolition ; Africa - West ;.
Baum, Richard Bay, Edna G. Bean, Richard N. Bellagamba, Alice Abolition ; Africa - West ; Emancipation ;. Bellagamba Alice Africa - West ; Emancipation ; Memory ;.
Bellagamba, Alice; Greene, Sandra E. Benachir, Bouazza Africa - West ; Race ;. Botte, Roger Africa - West ;. Bouche, Denise Brivio, Alessandra Brivio, Alessandra, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing,. Brooks, George E.
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- Slavery in Islam.
- Ancient Mesoamerican Warfare;
- BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI vi. Regulations Governing Slavery in Islamic Jurisprudence.
Brown, Carolyn Brown, Carolyn A. Africa - West ; Emancipation ;. Bullard, Alice Abolition ; Africa - West ; Race ;. Burnham, Philip Ciarcia, Gaetano eds. Cooper, Barbara M. Africa - West ; Domestic Labour ; Islam ;.
. . . Shadows of Slavery : : : Bibliography . . .
Cooper, Frederick; Holt, Thomas C. Cross, Hannah Africa - West ; Europe ; General ; State ;. Curtin, Philip D. Daget, Serge Diouf, Sylviane A. Dottridge, Mike Eltis, David Fage, John Donnelly Fall, Babacar Falola Toyin Fanou-Ako, Norbert Fisher, Allan G. Africa - North ; Africa - West ; Islam ;. Fisher, H. Fong, Janice Gallay, Alain. Getz, Trevor Goodin, Brett Greene, Sandra Grier, Beverly Africa - West ; Domestic Labour ;.
Between and , slaves in Puerto Rico had carried out more than twenty revolts. The planters of the Dutch colony relied heavily on African slaves to cultivate, harvest and process the commodity crops of coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam. Many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior that was highly successful in its own right.
The Maroons gradually developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis , as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities. The Maroons often raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons, food and supplies. They sometimes killed planters and their families in the raids. To end hostilities, in the 18th century the European colonial authorities signed several peace treaties with different tribes.
They granted the Maroons sovereign status and trade rights in their inland territories, giving them autonomy.
In , President Abraham Lincoln of the United States and his administration looked abroad for places to relocate freed slaves who wanted to leave the United States. It opened negotiations with the Dutch government regarding African-American emigration to and colonization of the Dutch colony of Suriname in South America. Nothing came of the idea and, after , the idea was dropped.
Volume Two: The Servile Estate, 1st Edition
The Netherlands abolished slavery in Suriname, in , under a gradual process that required slaves to work on plantations for 10 transition years for minimal pay, which was considered as partial compensation for their masters. After , most freedmen largely abandoned the plantations where they had worked for several generations in favor of the capital city, Paramaribo. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement , primarily of Africans and African Americans , that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War.
Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in By the time of the American Revolution — , the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry.
Congress, during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves , effective , although smuggling illegal importing was not unusual. Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new Western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation. The treatment of slaves in the United States varied widely depending on conditions, times and places.
The power relationships of slavery corrupted many whites who had authority over slaves, with children showing their own cruelty. Masters and overseers resorted to physical punishments to impose their wills. Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding and imprisonment. Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was carried out to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer of the slave. William Wells Brown , who escaped to freedom, reported that on one plantation, slave men were required to pick 80 pounds per day of cotton, while women were required to pick 70 pounds; if any slave failed in his or her quota, they were subject to whip lashes for each pound they were short.
The whipping post stood next to the cotton scales. More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South , which had a surplus of labor, and taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families. New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation.
In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessary evil".